Technology

FASForm™ is a simple, low cost partial pyrolysis process operating in a reducing atmosphere (no combustion or CO2 production) at slightly positive pressure and moderate temperature. It operates 24/7 matching the operating reliabilities of the product end users. The continuous generation of segregated products is a unique and disruptive change to existing, proven technology. Additional details are available under an NDA. This approach is not liquefaction or gasification as the fixed carbon in the feed stock is not converted. As the following table shows, FASForm™ is much less expensive and less polluting than those technologies.

004-Comparison-to-Coal-Liquefaction - Frontier Applied Sciences
History:

FAS was established after extensive due diligence into the technology and its viability as an innovative, problem-solving process with significant economic potential.   Bench scale tests have been done starting in 2006 which led to the first patent application in 2010.   These tests, with prior art on volatile hydrocarbon yields, confirmed the process stoichiometry and are the basis of the material and energy balances in several assessed case studies.

Conceptual engineering of reactor and material/product handling configurations based on established hydrocarbon processing, coking and coal/product material handling technology has been done to confirm that a reliable and continuous process is viable.   A core development team and advisory board has been formed; discussions with feasibility study, vendor/pilot testing and EPCM contractors are underway; and a letter of intent has been signed to secure a site in Arizona with bankable assurances for a scalable first plant that can generate US$11-40 million/year of EBITDA at fuels product prices equivalent to US$30-70/barrel crude oil.   This site can be expanded to a plant that is at least six times the size of the first module.

Intellectual Property:

FAS has a secure and rapidly expanding IP position.   Patents have been granted in South Africa,
China, Russia and Germany (the latter extending to the 28 countries in the European Union).
Applications are pending in the US, Canada, Australia, India, Japan and Indonesia.   All applications are in at least the first stage of Substantive Office Action.   Disclosures have been made in 139 additional countries under the International Patent Cooperation treaty.

FASForm™ Case Studies:

FAS has assessed a wide range of potential applications for FASForm™.   A profitable and scalable
first plant is planned to demonstrate the approach.   Feed stocks, products and financial parameters for this first plant are summarized in the following table.

005-Case-Study-First-Plant - Frontier Applied Sciences

The solid fuel can replace non-compliant raw coal and lignite in power and industrial plants at less than current generation costs in a 170 MWe (85,000 households) power plant and meet proposed EPA emissions rules.   It can also be sold as petroleum and, possibly, metallurgical coke.

Liquid and solid product yields vary with feed stock, but are comparable.   Low rank coals and lignite are the cheapest to procure and often have the highest product yields.

The first plant is a single module.
Larger commercial plants of 6-10 times the first plant size will have multiple first plant or larger modules and transportation fuel production costs in the $0.39-0.47/gallon ($0.10-0.13/liter) range.   The following table summarizes the large scale plant opportunities assessed to date.

006-case-studies-larger-plants - Frontier Applied Sciences

The table below summarizes the non-financial benefits of two of the above case studies.

007-non-financial-benefits - Frontier Applied Sciences

In addition:

  • Retrofit capital and operating costs using FASFuelTM are lower due to the smaller volume of fuel required.
  • Power block parasitic loads using FASFuelTM are lower due to removal of inherent moisture.
  • Power block efficiency using FASFuelTM is higher due to higher heat value.
  • Land use is small as the modular, low foot print plants can be placed on existing industrial facilities such as power plants, refineries and oil sands processing sites.   Permitting requirements are thus minimal.
  • Total water usage per energy unit is actually reduced from conventional combustion due to recovery/treatment of the inherent moisture.
  • Nominal external process energy, in addition to the 900-1,100 BTU/standard cubic foot (scf or 31,780-38,840 BTU/cubic meter) fuel gas produced and used internally, will be required at startup dependent on the carbon feed stock.   This will be supplied by low cost natural gas.
  • FASForm™ does not remove ash.   Most existing power plants have this equipment and, if not, its cost is a fraction of other emissions controls mandated new regulations.
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