Frontier Applied Sciences

The technology described below can meet global greenhouse gas (e.g., Carbon Dioxide or CO2) goals with coal and lignite (and, potentially, oil sands), and make significant financial returns even at the current low crude oil/fuel prices. It is an economic option to much more costly and polluting coal gasification and liquefaction technologies. It is not a CO2 generator and our products actually reduce CO2 in use.

Disruptive Technology:

Frontier Applied Sciences (FAS) has developed and owns FASForm™, a technology that could revolutionize the production of liquid transportation fuels. Depending upon feed stock, the moderate temperature, low-pressure process extracts 1.4 to 2 barrels (60-80 gallons or 225-310 liters) per metric ton of raw coal or lignite of segregated, semi-refined precursors of LPG (5% of the total), gasoline (25%), jet fuel (30%) and diesel (40%). In the same reactor, it enhances the 50-60% of remaining fixed carbon to a dry, high energy value, clean-burning generation fuel, gasification feed stock or coke which meets new emissions criteria in combustion or processing.

001-FASForm - Frontier Applied Sciences

This solid fuel allows a profitable, and thus more rational, transition to a lower global fossil fuel greenhouse gas profile. Existing and new solid fossil fuel plants can be cleaned up profitably, and a valuable, low-cost generation asset cost base can be preserved until carbon-free generation truly matures. FASForm™ could ultimately rank with horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) as a breakthrough technology for low-cost hydrocarbons recovery. In fact, its risk profile and breakeven cost is much lower, and its feed stock is more diverse/accessible and thus more stable, than fracking.

Profitably Improves the Environment:

This technology is a potential solution for the Paris climate accords, US EPA Clean Power Plan, and other country plans to reduce greenhouse gasses and other pollutants in solid fossil-fired power plants. However, purely environmental solutions usually result in higher costs rather than turn a profit, and are thus a less attractive investment. The advantage in FASForm™ is the hydrocarbon transportation fuels recovered. FASForm™ is profitable, without subsidies, at product prices based on crude oil below $25/barrel. There are few sources of conventional crude oil and transportation fuels that can be sustainable at current low price levels.

Secured First Plant Site and Excellent Global Partners: 002-First-Commercial-Plant - Frontier Applied Sciences
FAS has an agreement to form a joint venture with Novo BioPower ( to build its first FASForm™ plant near Snowflake, Arizona – see picture of site to right. Capital Cost is estimated at US$ 50 million for development, construction and startup of a scalable and profitable 2,500 short ton or st (2,230 metric tons or mt)/day raw coal to clean fuels facility. Novo BioPower is owned by the Worsley family. Bob Worsley is an Arizona State Senator whose entrepreneurial spirit is exemplified in his founding of SkyMall and Novo BioPower. His son,
Brad, is the CEO.

FAS has also been in due diligence with an Alberta-based oil company (David Crombie, Director, Proven Oil Asia Ltd – – and former CEO and Chairman of Conserve Oil) and a large German utility (the new fuels R&D group of RWE AG – who have a long
term vision on a sustainable global energy mix.

In addition, FAS has partnering agreements with Paul Harris, a former CitiBank investment banker based in Australia; Dr. Peter Kastil, a Germany-based investment banker formerly with McKinsey; an Indian industrial group (Welspun – interested in monetizing their Indonesian coal; and an independent oil company based in the US (Lane Franks, CEO of Liberty Petroleum, a company founded by Lane and his brother, Trent Franks, a sitting US Congressman – They have also done due diligence and are potentially interested in investing or are seeking investment partners through their networks.

Target Markets and Customers:

This technology has significant implications for high-carbon raw material resource and generating regions. A recent assessment of the situation in Arizona, one of the largest coal-fired power generating states in the US, indicates that six, 14,750 short ton/day – stpd (13,170 metric ton/day – mtpd) FASForm™ plants can process and convert all the coal used for the 6,200 MWe currently generated there to a solid boiler fuel that meets proposed EPA emission rules and regulations. This would eliminate the plans to shut down units, and the capital cost would be a third of that required for the proposed emissions controls on the remaining affected plants. In addition, liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels would be produced that could displace 30-40% of currently imported transportation fuels in Arizona (only state in the US without a refinery) at a fraction of the current cost.

Similar advantages would be expected in large coal producers and users such as China, Manchuria and Mongolia; Japan; India; South Africa; Australia; the US Appalachian, North Central, Four Corners and Powder River Basin regions; and coal and oil sands-producing regions such as Alberta, Canada.

As the economics are even more compelling for low rank coals and lignite, producers and exporters in the South Central US, Australia, Germany and Indonesia could make more front end profit by cutting transportation costs and producing fuels that are environmentally compliant.

This approach exploits a source of fuels that is substantially lower in cost than that from current and projected crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL) exploration and production, including from shale and tight oil reserves. Liquids yield and profitability projections for low rank coals and lignite are much higher. The market potential for international markets is also larger as Western Europe, Japan, India and China are increasing coal and lignite use. This is a disruptive technology for the energy industry and a new, economic hydrocarbon fuel source for challenged regions.

FAS’s key customer targets are energy companies seeking new transportation fuel sources; utilities or independent power producers (IPPs) with significant fossil fuel-fired power generation capacity and regulatory challenges; and coal, oil sands and other high-carbon resource mining companies.

Competitive advantages: 

  • 003-Comparative-Energy-Costs - Frontier Applied SciencesFASForm™ is a simple, continuous, low impact approach that capitalizes on stable feed stock, processing, and capital costs, to achieve acceptable profitability at liquid transportation fuel prices equivalent to less than $20/barrel crude. Returns at higher crude oil and derived fuel product prices are very attractive.
  • As noted in the figure above, FASForm™ can produce segregated liquid products that are competitive to conventional hydrocarbon production and refining, and most current renewable and synthetic fuels technologies.
  • Crude oil price is the only significant factor affecting profitability. FASForm™ is only moderately sensitive to capital cost and nominally sensitive to feed stock price. Lower rank coals and lignite are actually feed stocks that have higher yields and are lower cost.
  • Roughly 60% of the raw coal is recovered as a dewatered, high-energy, clean solid fuel than meets new CO, SOx, NOx and Mercury emissions guidelines in combustion, with some reduction in Carbon Dioxide due to efficiency improvements. FASForm™ is also a zero discharge system that provides net environmental improvement to the full energy cycle.

    Complementary to the expanded use of carbon-free energy, FASForm™ is a rational solution to use an existing, low-cost fossil fuel-based generation asset base to meet the Paris climate accords of 2015 (COP 21), the US EPA Clean Power Plan of 2015, and similar greenhouse gas reduction initiatives in other industrialized countries.

Overall Stakeholder Benefits:

For the primary end users (e.g., Energy Companies, Utility Companies/IPPs, Coal and Oil Sands Companies, Gasification/Liquefaction/Commodity Chemical Companies, Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel Traders, Coke Users) – FASForm™ is a unique continuous, high capacity process that recovers fractionated, semi-refined hydrocarbon liquids, without destroying the fixed carbon in high carbon feed stocks and at much lower cost than conventional gasification/gas-to-liquids and direct liquefaction processes.

The solid fuel product, FASFuel™ is a clean, high-energy fuel eliminating or reducing current and proposed costs for emissions controls in existing and new fossil-fueled generation plants. Inherent moisture is removed making this an ideal solution for long distance surface or marine transportation, and use of lignite and other low-rank coals. The process also increases combustion efficiency due to the higher energy content of the FASFuel™, reduces parasitic loads due to removal of the inherent moisture, and reduces capital and operating costs for feed stock and product material handling equipment. This approach would also reduce net Carbon Dioxide emissions in the energy cycle by 20-30%.

FASForm ™ represents a sustainable approach to extending the life of the most efficient of the current solid fossil fuel infrastructure asset base. As it is much less expensive on a first and life cycle cost basis, and requires little retrofit to existing plants, it represents a much more cost effective alternative to existing Maximum Available Control Technologies (MACTs) for emissions reduction, coal conversion technologies such as gasification and liquefaction, or gas-to-liquids conversion with Fischer-Tropsch or similar processing. In fact, FASForm™ could provide a pre-treatment option for gasification and liquefaction processes that generates substantial profit to offset the cost of those technologies.

For the population and regulators – the lower cost transportation fuels produced can displace imports. Using FASFuel™ in lieu of raw coal and lignite significantly reduces CO, CO2, SOx, NOx, Mercury emissions and other pollutants in solid fossil-fired power plants. Water requirements for high carbon feed stocks are reduced as inherent moisture is recovered and treated for industrial use.

For FAS’ investors and licensors – though the environmental advantages of the solid product are obvious, this is not just a clean tech, coal/lignite or oil sands investment opportunity. The sale of valuable hydrocarbon commodities as part of the process results in rapid repayment of investment and substantial returns on equity for a relatively small capital investment even at low crude oil/product prices. The revenue stream from these commodities – liquid and gaseous transportation and heating fuels – substantially increases the market value, on a gross margin basis, of the raw carbon feed sources. This approach could be best viewed as a new, low cost liquid hydrocarbon fuel source, without the cost and risk of exploration and production that, “incidentally”, cleans up direct carbon combustion power generation cost-effectively.

Commercialization Plan:

FAS foresees its initial operations will be based on constructing multiple facilities at both existing power plants and key coal-hydrocarbon geographic intersections in the SW US to process raw coal prior to delivery to coal-fired power plants. Semi-refined transportation and heating fuels can be sold to existing refineries for final upgrading, or refined and finished liquid fuels could ultimately be made at the plant site and sold directly as the additional refining requirements are relatively simple. Other locations in the Pacific Basin, North America or the European Union may prove to be first to market.

Internationally, and longer term, FAS foresees formation of both independent joint ventures and licensing arrangements to develop cleaner power sources and to provide hydrocarbon production to nations that have large carbon resources, but do not have sufficient or reasonable cost liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon reserves.

Frontier Applied Sciences (FAS) relies on any recipient of this document to exercise reasonable due diligence and independently investigate the substance of FAS’ description of its technology, plans and circumstances. This material does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy investment securities. FAS has not included standard disclaimers found in documents related to investment securities transactions because this website does not relate to such a transaction. Additional information is available upon execution of a non-disclosure agreement.

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